In Indonesia, where rice is a staple food, rice is consumed widely and is one of the most essential household expenditures. There is a strong tendency that the lower the household’s economic class, the more signiﬁcant the proportion of their expenditure on rice. Apart from households, demand for rice also comes from the food processing industry, hotels, and restaurants.
As a basic need whose fulﬁllment cannot be delayed, adequate food at any time with easy access for all levels of society is crucial for the success of development. With its status as a staple food and the primary source of the calorie needs of the population, rice has always been one of the most strategic commodities for economic, social, and political stability.
As a staple food, rice cultivation has become a culture ﬁrmly attached to many rural communities, and paddy rice farming has become a hereditary occupation for many farmers. For farmers, the results of rice cultivation are used to meet family consumption and, at the same time, for income by selling their produce to the market. Thus, the productivity and sustainability of lowland rice farming are essential for farmers’ income but also crucial for the food security of their families.